Kai Zhao received his Ph.D degree from Physics department at University of California, San Diego in 2008. Then, he joined IBM research division as a postdoctroal researcher, working in the reliability and characterization group. His research interests include fabricating and characterizing advanced semiconductor devices. In his Ph.D study, his research was focused on the development of advanced single photon avalanche detector for Near IR photon and the project was funded by NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. At IBM research, he is now focused on understanding the reliability aspects for advanced Field Effect Transistors, including HKMG FETs and Carbon Nanotube Transistors.