The Hybrid Polymeric Materials group at IBM has been working in the area of low-k dielectric materials since 1995. Its current scientific interest focuses on the design of mechanically robust organosilicates with controlled pore sizes, the characterization and integration of highly porous materials and the development of new pore protection concepts.
SIMPLIFIED SCHEMATIC OF A TYPICAL CPU INTERCONNECT STRUCTURE
Low-k materials are generally targeted for M1 (1X) and intermediate wiring levels (2X & 4X) in the BEOL. Global wiring levels make use of the mechanical robustness imparted by USG and FSG.