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Storage Class Memory at Almaden - Our publications


Major Conference Presentations

  1. "Sub-30nm scaling and high-speed operation of fully-confined Access-Devices for 3D crosspoint memory based on Mixed-Ionic-Electronic-Conduction (MIEC) Materials," K. Virwani, G. W. Burr, R. S. Shenoy, C. T. Rettner, A. Padilla, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, G. Ho, R. S. King, K. Nguyen, A. N. Bowers, M. Jurich, M. BrightSky, E. A. Joseph, A. J. Kellock, N. Arellano, B. N. Kurdi and K. Gopalakrishnan, 2012 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM 2012), December 2012.

  2. Large-scale (512kbit) integration of Multilayer-ready Access-Devices based on Mixed-Ionic-Electronic-Conduction (MIEC) at 100% yield," G. W. Burr, K. Virwani, R. S. Shenoy, A. Padilla, M. BrightSky, E. A. Joseph, M. Lofaro, A. J. Kellock, R. S. King, K. Nguyen, A. N. Bowers, M. Jurich, C. T. Rettner, B. Jackson, D. S. Bethune, R. M. Shelby, T. Topuria, N. Arellano, P. M. Rice, B. N. Kurdi, and K. Gopalakrishnan, 2012 Symposium on VLSI Technology, T5-4, June 2012.

  3. "Endurance and Scaling Trends of Novel Access-Devices for Multi-Layer Crosspoint-Memory based on Mixed-Ionic-Electronic-Conduction (MIEC) Materials," R. S. Shenoy, K. Gopalakrishnan, B. Jackson, K. Virwani, G. W. Burr, C. T. Rettner, A. Padilla, D. S. Bethune, R. M. Shelby, A. J. Kellock, M. Breitwisch, E. A. Joseph, R. Dasaka, R. S. King, K. Nguyen, A. N. Bowers, M. Jurich, A. M. Friz, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and B. N. Kurdi, 2011 Symposium on VLSI Technology, T5B-1, June 2011.
  4. "Voltage polarity effects in GST--based Phase Change Memory: Physical origins and implications," A. Padilla, G. W. Burr, K. Virwani, A. Debunne, C. T. Rettner, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, B. Jackson, D. Dupouy, A. J. Kellock, R. M. Shelby, K. Gopalakrishnan, R. S. Shenoy, and B. N. Kurdi, 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM 2010), 29.4, December 2010.
  5. " Highly-Scalable Novel Access Device based on Mixed Ionic Electronic Conduction (MIEC) Materials for High Density Phase Change Memory (PCM) Arrays," K. Gopalakrishnan, R. S. Shenoy, C. T. Rettner, K. Virwani, D. S. Bethune, R. M. Shelby, G. W. Burr, A. J. Kellock, R. S. King, K. Nguyen, A. N. Bowers, M. Jurich, B. Jackson, A. M. Friz, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and B. N. Kurdi, 2010 Symposium on VLSI Technology, 19.4, June 2010.
  6. "Analytical Model for RESET Operation of Phase Change Memory," B. Rajendran, J. Karidis, M-H. Lee, M. Breitwisch, G. W. Burr, Y-H. Shih, R. Cheek, A. Schrott, H-L. Lung and C. Lam, IEDM Technical Digest, Dec 2008.
  7. "On the Dynamic Resistance and Reliability of Phase Change Memory," B. Rajendran, M-H. Lee, M. Breitwisch, G. W. Burr, Y-H. Shih, R. Cheek, A. Schrott, C-F. Chen, M. Lamorey, E. Joseph, Y. Zhu, R. Dasaka, P. L. Flaitz, F. H. Baumann, H-L. Lung, and C. Lam 2008 Symposium on VLSI Technology, June 2008.
  8. "Write strategies for 2 and 4-bit multi-Level phase-Change memory," T. Nirschl, J. B. Philipp, T. D. Happ, G. W. Burr, B. Rajendran, M.-H. Lee, A. Schrott, M. Yang, M. Breitwisch, C.-F. Chen, E. Joseph, M. Lamorey, R. Cheek, S.-H. Chen, S. Zaidi, S. Raoux, Y.C. Chen, Y. Zhu, R. Bergmann, H.-L. Lung, and C. Lam, IEDM Technical Digest, paper 17.5, Dec 2007.
  9. "Novel Lithography-Independent Pore Phase Change Memory," M. Breitwisch, T. Nirschl, C.F. Chen, Y. Zhu, M.H. Lee, M. Lamorey, G.W. Burr, E. Joseph, A. Schrott, J.B. Philipp, R. Cheek, T.D. Happ, S.H. Chen, S. Zaidi, P. Flaitz, J. Bruley, R. Dasaka, B. Rajendran, S. Rossnagel, M. Yang, Y.C. Chen, R. Bergmann, H.L. Lung, and C. Lam, 2007 Symposium on VLSI Technology, June 2007.
  10. "Ultra-Thin Phase-Change Bridge Memory Device Using GeSb," Y. C. Chen, C. T. Rettner, S. Raoux, G. W. Burr, S. H. Chen, R. M. Shelby, M. Salinga, W. P. Risk, T. D. Happ, G. M. McClelland, M. Breitwisch, A. Schrott, J. B. Philipp, M. H. Lee, R. Cheek, T. Nirschl, M. Lamorey, C. F. Chen, E. Joseph, S. Zaidi, B. Yee, H. L. Lung, R. Bergmann, and C. Lam, 2006 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, paper 30p3, December 2006.
  11. "Novel One-Mask Self-Heating Pillar Phase Change Memory," T. D. Happ, M. Breitwisch, A. Schrott, J. B. Philipp, M. H. Lee, R. Cheek, T. Nirschl, M. Lamorey, C. H. Ho, S. H. Chen, C. F. Chen, E. Joseph, S. Zaidi, G. W. Burr, B. Yee, Y. C. Chen, S. Raoux, H. L. Lung, R. Bergmann, and C. Lam, 2006 Symposium on VLSI Technology, paper 15.2, June 2006.

Review articles

  1. "Phase change memory technology," G. W. Burr, M. J. Breitwisch, M. Franceschini, D. Garetto, K. Gopalakrishnan, B. Jackson, B. Kurdi, C. Lam, L. A. Lastras, A. Padilla, B. Rajendran, S. Raoux, and R. Shenoy, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, 28(2), 223-262 (2010).

  2. "E-Beam Lithographic Studies of the Scaling of Phase Change Memory," S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, Y.-C. Chen, and G. W. Burr, MRS Bulletin, 33(9), 847-853 (2008).

  3. "Storage-class memory: The next storage system technology," R. Freitas and W. W. Wilcke, IBM Journal of Research and Development, 52(4/5), 439-448 (2008).

  4. "An overview of candidate device technologies for Storage-Class Memory," G. W. Burr, B. N. Kurdi, J. C. Scott, C. H. Lam, K. Gopalakrishnan, and R. S. Shenoy, IBM Journal of Research and Development, 52(4/5), 449-464 (2008).

  5. "Phase change Random Access Memory - A Scalable Technology," S. Raoux, G. W. Burr, M. J. Breitwisch, C. T. Rettner, Y.-C. Chen, R. M. Shelby, M. Salinga, D. Krebs, S.-H. Chen, H.-L. Lung, and C. H. Lam, IBM Journal of Research and Development, 52(4/5), 465-480 (2008).

Other journal articles

  1. "Observation and modeling of polycrystalline grain formation in Ge$_2$Sb$_2$Te$_5$," G. W. Burr, P. Tchoulfian, T. Topuria, C. Nyffeler, K. Virwani, A. Padilla, B.-S. Lee, R. M. Shelby, M. Eskandari, and B. Jackson, Journal of Applied Physics, 111(10), 104308 (2012).

  2. "Voltage polarity effects in GST-based Phase Change Memory Devices," A. Padilla, G. W. Burr, C. T. Rettner, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, B. Jackson, K. Virwani, A. J. Kellock, D. Dupouy, A. Debunne, R. M. Shelby, K. Gopalakrishnan, R. S. Shenoy, and B. N. Kurdi Journal of Applied Physics, 110(5), 054501 (2011).

  3. "Evidence of crystallization-induced segregation in the phase change material Te-rich GST," A. Debunne, K. Virwani, A. Padilla, G. W. Burr, A. J. Kellock, V. R. Deline, R. M. Shelby, and B. Jackson, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 158(10), H965-H972 (2011).

  4. "Observation of the role of subcritical nuclei in crystallization of a glassy solid," B.-S. Lee, G. W. Burr, R. M. Shelby, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, S. N. Bogle, K. Darmawikarta, S. G. Bishop,and J. R. Abelson, Science, 326(5955), 980-984 (2009).

  5. "Characterization of Phase Change Memory Materials using Phase Change Bridge Devices," D. Krebs, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, R. M. Shelby, M. Salinga, C. M. Jefferson, and M. Wuttig, Journal of Applied Physics, 106(5), 054308 (2009).

  6. "Threshold Field of Phase Change Memory Materials measured using Phase Change Bridge Devices," D. Krebs, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, M. Salinga, and M. Wuttig, Applied Physics Letters, 95(8), 082101 (2009).

  7. "Dynamic Resistance - A metric for variability characterization of Phase Change Memory," B. Rajendran, M. Breitwisch, M-H. Lee, G. W. Burr, Y-H. Shih, R. Cheek, A. Schrott, C-F. Chen, E. Joseph, R. Dasaka, H-L. Lung and C. Lam, IEEE Electron Device Letters 30(2), 126-129 (2009).

Invited Conference Presentations

  1. "Storage Class Memory," G. W. Burr, 2011 CMOS Emerging Technologies, June 2011.
  2. "The inner workings of phase change memory: lessons from prototype PCM devices," G. W. Burr, A. Padilla, M. Franceschini, B. Jackson, D. G. Dupouy, C. T. Rettner, K. Gopalakrishnan, R. Shenoy, and J. Karidis, Workshop on the Application of Communication Theory to Emerging Memory Technologies, IEEE GlobeCom 2010, ACTEMT-04.04, December 2010.
  3. "Phase change materials: model systems to study nucleation processes," B.-S. Lee, G. W. Burr, R. M. Shelby, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, S. N. Bogle, K. Darmawikarta, T. T. Li, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, 2010 EPCOS, September 2010.
  4. " Storage Class Memory," G. W. Burr, Short course on 2010 IEEE International Interconnect Technology Conference, June 2010.
  5. "Storage Class Memory," G. W. Burr, CMRR Non-volatile Memories Workshop 2010, April 2010.
  6. "Non-volatile memory Candidates for Storage Class Memory," G. W. Burr, INSIC Symposium on Alternative Storage Technologies , August 2009.
  7. "Phase Change Materials and their Application to Memory Technology," S. Raoux and G. W. Burr, The 37th Annual Electronic Materials Symposium, April 2009.
  8. "Storage Class Memory, Technology, and Use," W. Wilcke, R. Freitas, B. N. Kurdi, and G. W. Burr, Half-day tutorial on FAST'09 --- 7th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies February 2009.
  9. "Characteristics of a Highly Scalable Bridge Phase Change Memory" Y.-C. Chen, Y. Lin, S.-H. Chen, H.-Y. Cheng, H.-L. Lung, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, and C. H. Lam, The 9th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated-Circuit Technology (ICSICT), October 2008.
  10. Y.-C. Chen, Y. Lin, S.-H. Chen, C. T. Rettner, S. Raoux, H.-Y. Cheng, G. W. Burr, D. Krebs, H.-L. Lung, and C. H. Lam, "The Bridge Structure for Advanced Phase Change Memory Investigations" EPCOS 2008 (European Phase Change and Ovonics Symposium) September 2008.
  11. "Storage Class Memory," G. W. Burr, K. Gopalakrishnan, R. S. Shenoy, C. T. Rettner, and B. N. Kurdi, EIPBN 2008 --- The 52nd International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication May 2008.
  12. "Storage Class Memory, Technology, and Use," W. Wilcke, R. Freitas, B. N. Kurdi, and G. W. Burr, Half-day tutorial on FAST'08 --- 6th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies February 2008.
  13. Detecting Nuclei in Phase Change Materials by Fluctuation Electron Microscopy (FEM): An Experimental Proof of Nucleation Theory,'' EPCOS 2007 (European Phase Change and Ovonics Symposium) September 2007. (Best Talk Award).
  14. "G. W. Burr, B. Kurdi, and C. Narayan, " B.-S. Lee, S. N. Bogle, S. G. Bishop, J. R. Abelson, S. Raoux, R. M. Shelby, C. T. Rettner, and G. W. Burr, ltra-Dense Storage: From Holographic to Storage-Class Memory and Beyond," IEEE 18th Annual Workshop on Interconnections Within High-Speed Digital Systems, May 2007.
  15. "Ultra-Thin Phase-Change Bridge Memory Device Using GeSb," Y. C. Chen, C. T. Rettner, S. Raoux, G. W. Burr, S. H. Chen, R. M. Shelby, M. Salinga, W. P. Risk, T. D. Happ, G. M. McClelland, M. Breitwisch, A. Schrott, J. B. Philipp, M. H. Lee, R. Cheek, T. Nirschl, M. Lamorey, C. F. Chen, E. Joseph, S. Zaidi, B. Yee, H. L. Lung, R. Bergmann, and C. Lam, 2007 International Solid-State Circuits Conference, special session on "Best of IEDM 2006,'' February 2007.

Conference Presentations

  1. "Novel Access-Devices based on Mixed-Ionic-Electronic-Conduction (MIEC) Materials for MultiLayer PCM and RRAM Crosspoint-Memory Arrays," K. Virwani, R. S. Shenoy, K. Gopalakrishnan, G. W. Burr, C. T. Rettner, A. Padilla, D. S. Bethune, R. M. Shelby, B. Jackson, and B. N. Kurdi, CMRR Non-volatile Memories Workshop 2012, April 2012.

  2. "Assessment of Voltage Polarity and Resistance Drift Effects on Symmetric and Asymmetric Phase-Change Memory (PCM) Cell Designs," A. Padilla, G. W. Burr, C. T. Rettner, B. Jackson, K. Virwani, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, A. J. Kellock, R. M. Shelby, K. Gopalakrishnan, R. S. Shenoy, and B. N. Kurdi, CMRR Non-volatile Memories Workshop 2010, Apr. 2011.
  3. "Phase change materials - a model system demonstrating the role of subcritical nuclei in phase transformation," B.-S. Lee, G. W. Burr, R. M. Shelby, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, S. N. Bogle, K. Darmawikarta, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, Spring 2010 Meeting of the Materials Research Society (MRS), Apr. 2010.
  4. "Nuclei in Various Amorphous States of Phase Change Materials and their Effect on Transformation Speed," B.-S. Lee, S. Raoux, R. M. Shelby, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, K. Darmawikarta, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson Spring 2009 Meeting of the Materials Research Society (MRS), Apr. 2009.
  5. "Electrical properties of phase change memory cells," D. Krebs, M. Salinga, S. Kremers, H. Volker, M. Wuttig, S. Raoux, C. T.Rettner, R. M. Shelby, and G. W. Burr, Annual Meeting of the German Physical Society, Mar. (2009).
  6. "Quantifying the crystallization speed of GeSb by matching optical characterization to numerical simulation," G. W. Burr, M. Salinga, S. Raoux, R. M. Shelby, and M. Wuttig, MRS Spring 2008 April 2008.
  7. "RESET Resistance Dynamics in Phase Change Bridge Devices," D. Krebs, S. Raoux, C. Rettner, Y.-C. Chen, G. W. Burr, and M. Wuttig, MRS Spring 2008, April 2008.
  8. "Melt-quenched and Primed Amorphous States of Phase Change Materials," B.-S. Lee, S. Raoux, R. M. Shelby, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, K. Darmawikarta, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, MRS Spring 2008, April 2008.
  9. "Fluctuation Electron Microscopy, a tool to detect nuclei in amorphous solids," J. R. Abelson, B.-S. Lee, S. Raoux, R. M. Shelby, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, K. Darmawikarta, and S. G. Bishop, MRS Spring 2008, April 2008.
  10. "Application of electron beam lithography to the study of the scalability of phase change memory devices," C. T. Rettner, S. Raoux, J. L. Jordan-Sweet, Y.-C. Chen, and G. W. Burr, EIPBN 2007, May 2007.
  11. "Crystallization Kinetics of As-Deposited and Melt-Quenched Phase-Change Materials," Y.-C. Chen, C. T. Rettner, S. Raoux, G. W. Burr, R. M. Shelby, and M. Salinga, MRS Spring 2007, April 2007.

  12. "Relationship between the Crystallization Speed and Nanoscale Structural Order in Ge2Sb2Te5 and AgInSbTe Phase Change Materials," B.-S. Lee, S. N. Bogle, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, R. M. Shelby, G. W. Burr, Y. Xiao, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, MRS Spring 2007, April 2007.
  13. "Scaling and doping effects on grain size and switching properties of phase-change materials," M. S. Salinga, S. Raoux, J. L. Jordan-Sweet, M. F. Toney, C. Rettner, R. M. Shelby, G. W. Burr, and C. M. Jefferson, MRS Spring 2006, paper H8.2, April 2006.
  14. "Structure-kinetics relationship and photo-oxidation of phase change materials," B.-S. Lee, S. N. Bogle, Y. Xiao, S. G. Bishop, J. R. Abelson, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, R. M. Shelby, V. R. Deline, G. W. Burr, M. Jurich, M.-H. Kwon, K.-B. Kim, B.-K. Cheong, H. Li, and P. C. Taylor, MRS Spring 2006, paper H2.4, April 2006.