# Kush R Varshney

## contact information

Research Staff Member and Manager

Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY USA

+19149451628

Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY USA

+19149451628

## links

**2016**

Fidelity Loss in Distribution-Preserving Anonymization and Histogram Equalization

Lav R. Varshney, Kush R. Varshney

Lav R. Varshney, Kush R. Varshney

*Conference on Information Sciences and Systems*, 2016
Engineering Safety in Machine Learning

Kush R. Varshney

Kush R. Varshney

*Information Theory and Applications Workshop*, 2016
Associative Algorithms for Computational Creativity

Lav R. Varshney, Jun Wang, Kush R. Varshney

Lav R. Varshney, Jun Wang, Kush R. Varshney

*Journal of Creative Behavior*, 2016
Olfactory Signal Processing

Kush R. Varshney, Lav R. Varshney

Kush R. Varshney, Lav R. Varshney

*Digital Signal Processing**48*, 84-92, 2016**2015**

Assessing Expertise in the Enterprise: The Recommender Point of View

Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Kush R. Varshney

Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Kush R. Varshney

*ACM Recommender Systems Conference*, 2015
Learning Interpretable Clinical Prediction Rules using Threshold Group Testing

Amin Emad, Kush R. Varshney, Dmitry M. Malioutov

Amin Emad, Kush R. Varshney, Dmitry M. Malioutov

*NIPS Workshop on Machine Learning in Healthcare*, 2015
From Open Data Ecosystems to Systems of Innovation: A Journey to Realize the Promise of Open Data

Shubir Kapoor, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Jade Nguyen Strattner, Kush R. Varshney

Shubir Kapoor, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Jade Nguyen Strattner, Kush R. Varshney

*Data for Good Exchange*, 2015
Data Science of the People, for the People, by the People: A Viewpoint on an Emerging Dichotomy

Kush R. Varshney

Kush R. Varshney

*Data for Good Exchange*, 2015
Predictive Modeling of Customer Repayment for Sustainable Pay-As-You-Go Solar Power in Rural India

Hugo Gerard, Kamalesh Rao, Mark Simithraaratchy, Kush R. Varshney, Kunal Kabra, G. Paul Needham

Hugo Gerard, Kamalesh Rao, Mark Simithraaratchy, Kush R. Varshney, Kunal Kabra, G. Paul Needham

*Data for Good Exchange*, 2015
Data Challenges in Disease Response: The 2014 Ebola Outbreak and Beyond

Kush R. Varshney, Dennis Wei, Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

Kush R. Varshney, Dennis Wei, Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

*ACM JDIQ*, 2015
Targeting Villages for Rural Development Using Satellite Image Analysis

Kush R. Varshney, George H. Chen, Brian Abelson, Kendall Nowocin, Vivek Sakhrani, Ling Xu, Brian L. Spatocco

Kush R. Varshney, George H. Chen, Brian Abelson, Kendall Nowocin, Vivek Sakhrani, Ling Xu, Brian L. Spatocco

*Big Data*, 2015
A Robust Nonlinear Kalman Smoothing Approach for Dynamic Matrix Factorization

Aleksandr Y. Aravkin, Kush R. Varshney, Dmitry M. Malioutov

Aleksandr Y. Aravkin, Kush R. Varshney, Dmitry M. Malioutov

*SPARS*, 2015
A Semiquantitative Group Testing Approach for Learning Interpretable Clinical Prediction Rules

Amin Emad, Kush R. Varshney, Dmitry M. Malioutov

Amin Emad, Kush R. Varshney, Dmitry M. Malioutov

*SPARS*, 2015
Optigrow: People Analytics for Job Transfers

Dennis Wei, Kush R. Varshney, Marcy Wagman

Dennis Wei, Kush R. Varshney, Marcy Wagman

*IEEE International Congress on Big Data*, 2015
Health Insurance Market Risk Assessment: Covariate Shift and k-Anonymity

Dennis Wei, Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy, Kush R. Varshney

Dennis Wei, Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy, Kush R. Varshney

*SDM*, 2015
Learning Interpretable Classification Rules Using Sequential Row Sampling

Sanjeeb Dash, Dmitry M. Malioutov, Kush R. Varshney

Sanjeeb Dash, Dmitry M. Malioutov, Kush R. Varshney

*ICASSP*, 2015
Robust Binary Hypothesis Testing Under Contaminated Likelihoods

Dennis Wei, Kush R. Varshney

Dennis Wei, Kush R. Varshney

*ICASSP*, 2015
Persistent Topology of Decision Boundaries

Kush R. Varshney, Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy

Kush R. Varshney, Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy

*ICASSP*, 2015
Learning Interpretable Classification Rules via Boolean Compressed Sensing

Dmitry M. Malioutov, Kush R. Varshney, Sanjeeb Dash

Dmitry M. Malioutov, Kush R. Varshney, Sanjeeb Dash

*Joint Statistical Meetings*, 2015**2014**

Legislative Prediction with Political and Social Network Analysis

Jun Wang, Kush R. Varshney, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

Jun Wang, Kush R. Varshney, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

*Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining*,*pp. 804-811*, Springer, 2014
Personalization of Product Novelty Assessment via Bayesian Surprise

Nan Shao, Kush R. Varshney, Lav R. Varshney, Florian Pinel, Anshul Sheopuri, Pavankumar Murali

Nan Shao, Kush R. Varshney, Lav R. Varshney, Florian Pinel, Anshul Sheopuri, Pavankumar Murali

*Joint Statistical Meetings*, 2014
Talent Analytics to Predict Employee Job Roles and Skill Sets Using Diverse Data Sources

Kush R. Varshney, Vijil Chenthamarakshan, Jun Wang, Dongping Fang, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

Kush R. Varshney, Vijil Chenthamarakshan, Jun Wang, Dongping Fang, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

*International Symposium on Business and Industrial Statistics and Conference of the ASA Section on Statistical Learning and Data Mining*, 2014
Sparsity-Driven Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: Reconstruction, autofocusing, moving targets, and compressed sensing

Mujdat Cetin, Ivana Stojanovic, O Onhon, K Varshney, Sadegh Samadi, W Karl, A Willsky

Mujdat Cetin, Ivana Stojanovic, O Onhon, K Varshney, Sadegh Samadi, W Karl, A Willsky

*Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE**31*(*4*), 27--40, IEEE, 2014
Collaborative Kalman Filtering for Dynamic Matrix Factorization

J Sun, Dhruv Parthasarathy, K Varshney

J Sun, Dhruv Parthasarathy, K Varshney

*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing*, 2014
Computing persistent homology under random projection

Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy, Kush R Varshney, Jayaraman J Thiagarajan

Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy, Kush R Varshney, Jayaraman J Thiagarajan

*Statistical Signal Processing (SSP), 2014 IEEE Workshop on*,*pp. 105--108*
FOOD STEGANOGRAPHY WITH OLFACTORY WHITE

Kush R Varshney, Lav R Varshney

Kush R Varshney, Lav R Varshney

*IEEE Statistical Signal Processing Workshop*, 2014
ACTIVE ODOR CANCELLATION

Kush R Varshney, Lav R Varshney

Kush R Varshney, Lav R Varshney

*IEEE Statistical Signal Processing Workshop*, 2014
An Analysis of Losing Unimportant Points in Tennis

Kush R Varshney

Kush R Varshney

*KDD Workshop on Large-Scale Sports Analytics*, 2014
Bounded Confidence Opinion Dynamics in a Social Network of Bayesian Decision Makers

Kush R Varshney

Kush R Varshney

*IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing*, 2014
Predicting Employee Expertise for Talent Management in the Enterprise

Kush R Varshney, Vijil Chenthamarakshan, Scott W Fancher, Jun Wang, Dongping Fang, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

Kush R Varshney, Vijil Chenthamarakshan, Scott W Fancher, Jun Wang, Dongping Fang, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

*KDD*, 2014
Targeting Direct Cash Transfers to the Extremely Poor

Brian Abelson, Kush R Varshney, Joy Sun

Brian Abelson, Kush R Varshney, Joy Sun

*KDD*, 2014
Screening for learning classification rules via Boolean compressed sensing

S. Dash, D. Malioutov, K. Varshney

S. Dash, D. Malioutov, K. Varshney

*IEEE ICASSP*, 2014
Optimal grouping for group minimax hypothesis testing

Kush R Varshney, Lav R Varshney

Kush R Varshney, Lav R Varshney

*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory*, 2014**2013**

A Big Data Approach to Computational Creativity

Lav R Varshney, Florian Pinel, Kush R Varshney, Debarun Bhattacharjya, Angela Schoergendorfer, Yi-Min Chee

Lav R Varshney, Florian Pinel, Kush R Varshney, Debarun Bhattacharjya, Angela Schoergendorfer, Yi-Min Chee

*arXiv preprint arXiv:1311.1213*, 2013
Balancing lifetime and classification accuracy of wireless sensor networks

Kush R Varshney, Peter M van de Ven

Kush R Varshney, Peter M van de Ven

*Proceedings of the fourteenth ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking and computing*,*pp. 31--38*, 2013
Prescriptive Analytics for Allocating Sales Teams to Opportunities

Ban Kawas, Mark S Squillante, Dharmashankar Subramanian, Kush R Varshney

Ban Kawas, Mark S Squillante, Dharmashankar Subramanian, Kush R Varshney

*Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW), 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on*,*pp. 211--218*
Quantile regression for workforce analytics

Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy, Kush R Varshney, Moninder Singh

Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy, Kush R Varshney, Moninder Singh

*Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP), 2013 IEEE*,*pp. 1134--1134*
Quantifying and recommending expertise when new skills emerge

Dongping Fang, Kush R Varshney, Jun Wang, Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, John H Bauer

Dongping Fang, Kush R Varshney, Jun Wang, Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, John H Bauer

*Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW), 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on*,*pp. 672--679*
OPINION DYNAMICS WITH BOUNDED CONFIDENCE IN THE BAYES RISK ERROR DIVERGENCE SENSE

Kush R Varshney

Kush R Varshney

*IEEE ICASSP*, 2013
A Salesforce Control Theory Analysis of Enterprise Microblog Posts

Kush R Varshney, N Sadat Shami

2013 - ssg.mit.edu

Kush R Varshney, N Sadat Shami

2013 - ssg.mit.edu

Predicting and recommending skills in the social enterprise

Kush R Varshney, Jun Wang, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Dongping Fang, John H Bauer

Kush R Varshney, Jun Wang, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Dongping Fang, John H Bauer

*Proc. Int. AAAI Conf. Weblogs Soc. Med*, 2013
Dose-response signal estimation and optimization for salesforce management

Kush R Varshney, Moninder Singh

Kush R Varshney, Moninder Singh

*Service Operations and Logistics, and Informatics (SOLI), 2013 IEEE International Conference on*,*pp. 328--333*
Expertise assessment with multi-cue semantic information

Jun Wang, Kush R Varshney, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Dongping Fang, John H Bauer

Jun Wang, Kush R Varshney, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Dongping Fang, John H Bauer

*Service Operations and Logistics, and Informatics (SOLI), 2013 IEEE International Conference on*,*pp. 534--539*
Flavor Pairing in Medieval European Cuisine: A Study in Cooking with Dirty Data

Kush R. Varshney, Lav R. Varshney, Jun Wang, Daniel Meyers

Kush R. Varshney, Lav R. Varshney, Jun Wang, Daniel Meyers

*Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence Workshops*,*pp. 3--12*, 2013
Cognition as a Part of Computational Creativity

Lav R. Varshney, Florian Pinel, Kush R. Varshney, Angela Sch\"{o}rgendorfer, Yi-Min Chee

Lav R. Varshney, Florian Pinel, Kush R. Varshney, Angela Sch\"{o}rgendorfer, Yi-Min Chee

*Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing (ICCI*CC)*,*pp. 36--43*, 2013
Practical Ensemble Classification Error Bounds for Different Operating Points

K.R. Varshney, R.J. Prenger, T.L. Marlatt, B.Y. Chen, W.G. Hanley

K.R. Varshney, R.J. Prenger, T.L. Marlatt, B.Y. Chen, W.G. Hanley

*IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering*, 2013**2012**

Legislative Prediction via Random Walks over a Heterogeneous Graph.

Jun Wang, Kush R Varshney, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

Jun Wang, Kush R Varshney, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

*SDM*,*pp. 1095--1106*, 2012
An Analytics Approach for Proactively Combating Voluntary Attrition of Employees

Moninder Singh, Kush R. Varshney, Jun Wang, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Mark S. Squillante, Yingdong Lu, Alisia Gill, Patricia Faur, and Raphael Ezry

Moninder Singh, Kush R. Varshney, Jun Wang, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Mark S. Squillante, Yingdong Lu, Alisia Gill, Patricia Faur, and Raphael Ezry

*IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM) - Workshop on Data Mining for Service*,*pp. 317--323*, 2012
Deconvolving the Productivity of Salespeople via Constrained Quadratic Programming

Gautam K. Bhat, Kush R. Varshney

Gautam K. Bhat, Kush R. Varshney

*National Systems Conference*, 2012
Interactive Visual Salesforce Analytics

Kush R. Varshney, Jamie Rasmussen, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Moninder Singh, Joan M. DiMicco

Kush R. Varshney, Jamie Rasmussen, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Moninder Singh, Joan M. DiMicco

*International Conference on Information Systems 2012*
Sales-Force Performance Analytics and Optimization

Moritz Baier, Jorge E. Carballo, Alice J. Chang, Yingdong Lu, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, M. Jonathan Richard, Moninder Singh, Mark S. Squillante, and Kush R. Varshney

Moritz Baier, Jorge E. Carballo, Alice J. Chang, Yingdong Lu, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, M. Jonathan Richard, Moninder Singh, Mark S. Squillante, and Kush R. Varshney

*IBM Journal of Research and Development**56*(*6*), 8--1, IBM, 2012
Legislative Prediction via Random Walks over a Heterogeneous Graph

Jun Wang, Kush R. Varshney, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

Jun Wang, Kush R. Varshney, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

*SIAM International Conference on Data Mining*,*pp. 1095-1106*, 2012
Does selection bias blind performance diagnostics of business decision models? A case study in salesforce optimization

Jun Wang, Moninder Singh, Kush R. Varshney

Jun Wang, Moninder Singh, Kush R. Varshney

*Service Operations and Logistics, and Informatics (SOLI), 2012 IEEE International Conference on*,*pp. 416--421*
Decision Trees for Heterogeneous Dose-Response Signal Analysis

Kush R. Varshney, Moninder Singh, Jun Wang

Kush R. Varshney, Moninder Singh, Jun Wang

*IEEE Statistical Signal Processing Workshop*, 2012
Dynamic Matrix Factorization: A State Space Approach

John Z. Sun, Kush R. Varshney, Karthik Subbian

John Z. Sun, Kush R. Varshney, Karthik Subbian

*IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing*, 2012
Generalization Error of Linear Discriminant Analysis in Spatially-Correlated Sensor Networks

Kush R. Varshney

Kush R. Varshney

*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing*, 2012**2011**

Classification of IT service tickets for defect prevention

KR Varshney, D Fang, AR Heching, A Mojsilovic, M Singh

KR Varshney, D Fang, AR Heching, A Mojsilovic, M Singh

*INFORMS Annu. Meeting, Charlotte, NC*, 2011
Categorical Decision Making by People, Committees, and Crowds

Lav R. Varshney, Joong Bum Rhim, Kush R. Varshney, Vivek K. Goyal

Lav R. Varshney, Joong Bum Rhim, Kush R. Varshney, Vivek K. Goyal

*Information Theory and its Applications Workshop*, 2011
Estimating Post-Event Seller Productivity Profiles in Dynamic Sales Organizations

Kush R. Varshney, Moninder Singh, Mayank Sharma, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

Kush R. Varshney, Moninder Singh, Mayank Sharma, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

*IEEE International Workshop on Data Mining for Service*, 2011
Business Analytics Based on Financial Time Series

Kush R. Varshney, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

Kush R. Varshney, Aleksandra Mojsilovic

*IEEE Signal Processing Magazine*, 2011
Spatially-Correlated Sensor Discriminant Analysis

Kush R. Varshney

Kush R. Varshney

*IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing*, 2011
A Risk Bound for Ensemble Classification with a Reject Option

Kush R. Varshney

Kush R. Varshney

*IEEE International Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing*, 2011
Bayes Risk Error is a Bregman Divergence

Kush R. Varshney

Kush R. Varshney

*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing*, 2011
MCMC inference of the shape and variability of time-response signals

Dmitriy A. Katz-Rogozhnikov, Kush R. Varshney, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Moninder Singh

Dmitriy A. Katz-Rogozhnikov, Kush R. Varshney, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Moninder Singh

*IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing*, 2011
Linear dimensionality reduction for margin-based classification: High-dimensional data and sensor networks

Kush R. Varshney, Alan S. Willsky

Kush R. Varshney, Alan S. Willsky

*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing**59*(*6*), 2011
Multilevel Minimax Hypothesis Testing

Kush R. Varshney, Lav R. Varshney

Kush R. Varshney, Lav R. Varshney

*IEEE International Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing*, 2011**2010**

A Framework for Sales Force Productivity Profile Estimation

Mayank Sharma, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Moninder Singh, Kush R. Varshney

Mayank Sharma, Aleksandra Mojsilovic, Moninder Singh, Kush R. Varshney

*INFORMS Annual Meeting*, 2010
Class-Specific Error Bounds for Ensemble Classifiers

Ryan J. Prenger, Tracy D. Lemmond, Kush R. Varshney, Barry Y. Chen, William G. Hanley

Ryan J. Prenger, Tracy D. Lemmond, Kush R. Varshney, Barry Y. Chen, William G. Hanley

*ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining*,*pp. 843--852*, 2010
Classification Using Geometric Level Sets

Kush R. Varshney, Alan S. Willsky

Kush R. Varshney, Alan S. Willsky

*Journal of Machine Learning Research**11*(*Feb*), 491-516, JMLR. org, 2010**2009**

Postarthroplasty Examination Using X-ray Images

Kush R. Varshney, Nikos Paragios, Jean-Francois Deux, Alain Kulski, Remy Raymond, Phillipe Hernigou, Alain Rahmouni

Kush R. Varshney, Nikos Paragios, Jean-Francois Deux, Alain Kulski, Remy Raymond, Phillipe Hernigou, Alain Rahmouni

*IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging*, 2009
Learning Dimensionality-Reduced Classifiers for Information Fusion

Kush R. Varshney, Alan S. Willsky

Kush R. Varshney, Alan S. Willsky

*International Conference on Information Fusion*,*pp. 1881--1888*, 2009**2008**

Minimum mean bayes risk error quantization of prior probabilities.

Kush R Varshney, Lav R Varshney

Kush R Varshney, Lav R Varshney

*ICASSP*,*pp. 3445--3448*, 2008
Sparse Representation in Structured Dictionaries with Application to Synthetic Aperture Radar

Kush R. Varshney, Müjdat Çetin, John W. Fisher III, Alan S. Willsky

Kush R. Varshney, Müjdat Çetin, John W. Fisher III, Alan S. Willsky

*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing**56*(*8*), 3548--3561, IEEE, 2008
Minimum Mean Bayes Risk Error Quantization of Prior Probabilities

Kush R. Varshney, Lav R. Varshney

Kush R. Varshney, Lav R. Varshney

*IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing*,*pp. 3445--3448*, 2008
Quantization of Prior Probabilities for Hypothesis Testing

Kush R. Varshney, Lav R. Varshney

Kush R. Varshney, Lav R. Varshney

*IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing**56*(*10*), 4553--4562, IEEE, 2008
Supervised Learning of Classifiers via Level Set Segmentation

Kush R. Varshney, Alan S. Willsky

Kush R. Varshney, Alan S. Willsky

*IEEE Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing*,*pp. 115--120*, 2008**2007**

A Sparse Signal Representation-Based Approach to Image Formation and Anisotropy Determination in Wide-Angle Radar

Kush R. Varshney, Müjdat Çetin, John W. Fisher III, Alan S. Willsky

Kush R. Varshney, Müjdat Çetin, John W. Fisher III, Alan S. Willsky

*IEEE Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference*,*pp. 1--4*, 2007
Multi-View Stereo Reconstruction of Total Knee Replacement from X-Rays

Kush R. Varshney, Nikos Paragios, Alain Kulski, Remy Raymond, Phillipe Hernigou, Alain Rahmouni

Kush R. Varshney, Nikos Paragios, Alain Kulski, Remy Raymond, Phillipe Hernigou, Alain Rahmouni

*IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging*,*pp. 1148--1151*, 2007**2006**

Wideangle SAR image formation with migratory scattering centers and regularization in Hough space

Kush R Varshney, M\"ujdat Cetin, John W Fisher III, Alan S Willsky

Kush R Varshney, M\"ujdat Cetin, John W Fisher III, Alan S Willsky

*Proc. Adapt. Sensor Array Process. Workshop*, 2006
Joint Anisotropy Characterization and Image Formation in Wide-Angle Synthetic Aperture Radar

Kush R. Varshney

Kush R. Varshney

*S.M. Thesis*, 2006
Wide-Angle SAR Image Formation with Migratory Scattering Centers and Regularization in Hough Space

Kush R. Varshney, Müjdat Çetin, John W. Fisher III, Alan S. Willsky

Kush R. Varshney, Müjdat Çetin, John W. Fisher III, Alan S. Willsky

*Workshop on Adaptive Sensor Array Processing*,*pp. 2006*
Joint Image Formation and Anisotropy Characterization in Wide-Angle SAR

Kush R. Varshney, Müjdat Çetin, John W. Fisher III, Alan S. Willsky

Kush R. Varshney, Müjdat Çetin, John W. Fisher III, Alan S. Willsky

*SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, Algorithms for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery XIII*,*pp. 62370D*, 2006**2005**

Automatic Fingerprint Matching Systems

Kush R. Varshney

Kush R. Varshney

*Glimpses of Systems Theory and Novel Applications: Felcitation Volume in Honour of Professor Raj Kumar Varshney*,*pp. 149-164*, Navin Press, 2005