Landauer Formalism - Conductance must come in Quantized Units     

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Landauer Formalism - Conductance must come in Quantized Units - overview


Physics Accomplishment | 1957

IBM researcher: Rolf William Landauer

Where the work was done: IBM T.J. Watson Research Center

What we accomplished: Rolf Landauer (pictured) showed that theoretically conductance must come in quantized units (analogous to Planck's showing in 1900 that energy comes in discrete quanta). In large structures, the quantization is not observed because so many quantum conduction channels are involved. The quantization of conductance was experimentally observed in the 1990s and the discoverers (not from IBM) received the Buckley Prize -- the top prize for discoveries in condensed matter physics. The Landauer Formula is now the starting point for understanding charge transport (current flow) in all sufficiently small structures.

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Image credit: IIT-Vidya

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