Josephson Junctions - overview
Physics Accomplishment | 1967-1990
IBM researchers: Juri Matisoo, W. Anacker
Where the work was done: IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, IBM Zurich Research Lab, IBM East Fishkill
What we accomplished: Paraphrasing the 1980 writeup of work: IBM investigated the technological feasibility of using Josephson Junction devices to fabricate computers with the ability to run at very high speeds. Josephson devices are based on superconductivity [zero electrical resistance], quantum tunneling and Josephson effects. Thus, the devices must be operated at very low temperatures, about 4 degrees above absolute zero (-273 Celsius or -459 Fahrenheit) -- temperatures that are very challenging to achieve in operation.
Image credit: IBM. See also IEEE Spectrum