Govind Kaigala  Govind Kaigala photo         

contact information

Research Staff Member
IBM Research Laboratory - Zurich, Rueschlikon, Switzerland


Our work falls under 3 themes: "open-space microfluidics" includes creating versitile analytical technologies and methods to interface with commonly used biological substrates and interfaces; "tissue microprocessing" encompasses the use of open-space microfluidics technologies for microscale molecular assays on adherent cells and tissue sections; and, "electrokinetics" for high-efficiency surface assays.

Open-space microfluidics
liquid scanning probes & eletrokinetic scanning probe and microfluidic probe (MFP) technology

Open space diffusive filter for simultaneous species retrieval and separation
Mathur, M., Khartchenko, A. F., deMello, A., and Kaigala, G.V.
Analytical Chemistry, 2020.

Reconfigurable Microfluidics: Real-time Shaping of Virtual Channels through Hydrodynamic Forces
Taylor, D., and Kaigala, G. V.
Lab on a Chip, 2020.

Electrokinetic Scanning Probe
Ostromohov, N., Rofman, B., Bercovici, M., and Kaigala, G. V.
Small, 2020.

Fluidic bypass structures for improving the robustness of liquid scanning probes
D. Taylor and G. V. Kaigala
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2018.2890602, 2019.

Analyte-localization device for point-of-use processing of sub-millimetre areas on surfaces
A. Oskooei, G.V. Kaigala
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical
258, 961-969, 2018.

Deep-reaching hydrodynamic flow confinements (DR-HFC): um-scale liquid localization for open surfaces with topographical variations
A. Oskooei, G.V. Kaigala
IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Engineering 64, 2017.

Hydrodynamic thermal confinement: creating thermo-chemical microenvironments on surfaces
J.F. Cors, A. Stucki, G. V. Kaigala
Chemical Communications 52, 13035-13038, 2016.

Delivery of minimally dispersed liquid interfaces for sequential surface chemistry
N. Ostromohov, M. Bercovici, G.V. Kaigala
Lab on a Chip 16, 3015-3023, 2016.

Passive removal of immiscible spacers from segmented flows in a microfluidic probe
X.F. Kooten, J. Autebert, G.V. Kaigala
Applied Physics Letters 106, 074102, 2015.

Centimeter-scale surface interactions using hydrodynamic flow confinements
D.P. Taylor, I. Zeaf, R. D. Lovchik, G.V. Kaigala
Langmuir 32(41), 10537-10544, 2016.

Lab-on-a-chip devices. How to close and plug the lab?
Y. Temiz, R.D. Lovchik, G.C. Kaigala, E. Delamarche
Microelectronic Engineering 132, 156-175, 2015.

Hierarchical hydrodynamic flow confinement: efficient use and retrieval of chemicals for microscale biochemistry on surfaces
J. Autebert, A. Kashyap, R.D. Lovchik, E. Delamarche, G.V. Kaigala
Langmuir 30(12), 2014.

A compact and versatile microfluidic probe for local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens
J.F. Cors, R.D. Lovchik, E. Delamarche, G.V. Kaigala
Review of Scientific Instruments 85, 034301, 2014.

The floating Microfluidic Probe (fMFP): Distance control between probe and sample using hydrodynamic levitation
M. Hitzbleck, G.V. Kaigala, E. Delamarche, R.D. Lovchik
Applied Physics Letters 104, 263501, 2014.

Microfluidics in the "Open Space" for Performing Localized Chemistry on Biological Interfaces

G.V. Kaigala, R.D. Lovchik, E. Delamarche
Angewandte Chemie 51(45) 11224-11240, 2012.

Micro-immunohistochemistry using a microfluidic probe
R.D. Lovchik, G.V. Kaigala, M. Georgiadis, E. Delamarche
Lab on a Chip 11, 1040-1043, 2012.

A Vertical Microfluidic Probe

G.V. Kaigala, R.D. Lovchik, U. Drechsler, E. Delamarche
Langmuir 27, 5686-5693, 2011.


Tissue (and cell) microprocessing
microscale molecular assays & next-generation tumor profiling systems

Rapid micro-immunohistochemistry
Lovchik, R., Taylor, D., and Kaigala, G. V.
Microsystems & Nanoengineering, 2020.

Spatially multiplexed RNA in situ hybridization to reveal tumor heterogeneity
Voithenberg, L. V., Huber, D., Khartchenko, A. F., Schraml, P., and Kaigala, G. V.
Nucleic Acids Research, 2019.

Spatially resolved genetic analysis of tissue sections enabled by microscale flow confinement retrieval and isotachophoretic purification
van Kooten,X., Petrini, L. F. T., Kashyap, A. von Voithenberg, L. V., Bercovici, M. and Kaigala, G. V.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2019.

Quantitative microimmunohistochmiestry for the grading of immunostains on tumor tissues
Kashyap, A.; Fomitcheva Khartchenko, A.; Pati, P; Gabrani, M; Schraml, P; and Kaigala, G.V.
Nature Biomedical Engineering, 2019.

High-Quality Immunohistochemical Stains through Computational Assay Parameter Optimization
Arar, N. M. ; Pati, P., Kashyap, P. ; Fomitcheva Khartchenko, A., Goksel, O., Kaigala, G. V., Gabrani, M.
IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Engineering, 2019.

Underpinning transport phenomena for the patterning of biomolecules
I. Pereiro, J. F. Cors, S. Pane, B. J. Nelson, and G. V. Kaigala,
Chemical Society Reviews, DOI:10.1039/C8CS00852C, 2019.

Rapid micro fluorescence in situ hybridization in tissue sections
D. Huber, G.V. Kaigala
Biomicrofluidics 12(4) 042212, 2018.

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): History, limitations and what to expect from micro-scale FISH?
D. Huber, L. Voith von Voithenberg, and G.V. Kaigal
Micro and Nano Engineering, DOI: 10.1016/j.mne.2018.10.006, 2018.

Real-time monitoring of fluorescence in situ hybridization kinetics
Ostromohov, D. Huber, M. Bercovici, and  G.V. Kaigala
Analytical Chemistry 90, 11169-11734, 2018.

Hydrodynamics in Cell Studies
D. Huber, A. Oskooei, X.C. Solvas, A. deMello, G.V. Kaigala
Chemical Reviews 118(4) 2042–2079, 2018.

Tissue Lithography: Microscale Dewaxing to Enable Retrospective Studies on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) Tissue Sections
J.F. Cors, A. Kashyap, A. Fomitcheva Khartchenko, P. Schraml, G.V. Kaigala
PLoS One, 2017.

Computational Immunohistochemistry: Recipes for Standardization of Immunostaining
M. Arar, P. Pushpak, A. Kashyap, A. Fomitcheva Khartchenko O. Goksel, G.V. Kaigala, M. Gabrani,
Proc. International Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention “MICCAI,” pp. 48055, 2017.

Micro fluorescence in situ hybridization (µFISH) for spatially multiplexed analysis of a cell monolayer
D. Huber, J. Autebert, G.V. Kaigala
Biomedical Microdevices 18(40), 2016.

Rapid subtractive patterning of live cell layers with a microfluidic probe
A. Kashyap, J.C. Cors, R.D. Lovchik, G.V. Kaigala
Journal of Visualized Experiments 115, e54447, 2016.

Selective local lysis and sampling of live cells for nucleic acid analysis using a microfluidic probe
A. Kashyap, J. Autebert, E. Delamarche, G.V. Kaigala
Scientific Reports 6, 29579, 2016.

Convection-enhanced biopatterning with hydrodynamically confined nanoliter volumes of reagents
J. Autebert, J. Cors, D. Taylor, G.V. Kaigala
Analytical Chemistry 88(6), 3235-3242, 2016.

creating “Virtual Vials” or confinements using electric fields & reconfigurable microfluidics

Diffusion-based separation using bidirectional electroosmotic flow
Bacheva, V., Paratore, F., Rubin, S., Kaigala, G. V., and Bercovici, M.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2020.

Electroosmotic Flow Dipole: Experimental Observation and Flow Field Patterning
Paratore, F., Boyko, E., Kaigala,, G. V., and Bercovici, M.
Physical Review Letters, 122, 224502, 2019.

Dynamic microscale flow patterning using electrical modulation of zeta potential
Paratore, F., Bacheva, V., Kaigala, G.V., and Bercovic, M.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2019.

Extraction of electrokinetically separated analytes with on-demand encapsulation
X.F. van Kooten, M. Bercovici, G.V. Kaigala
Lab on a Chip, DOI: 10.1039/C8LC00912K, 2018.

Toward microscale flow control using non-uniform electro-osmotic flow
F. Paratore, E. Boyko, A.D. Gat, G.V. Kaigala, M. Bercovici
Proc. SPIE 10491, Microfluidics, BioMEMS, Medical Microsystems XVI, 104910P, 2018.

Isotachophoresis-Based Surface Immunoassay
F. Paratore, T. Zeidman Kalman, T. Rosenfeld, G.V. Kaigala, M. Bercovici
Analytical Chemisty 89(14), 7373-7381, 2017.

Focusing analytes from 50uL into 500 pL: On-chip focusing from large sample volumes using isotachophoresis
X.F. van Kooten, M. Truman-Rosentsvit, G.V. Kaigala, M. Bercovici
Scientific Reports 7, 2017.

Work or publciations that are more general in nature and not a direct fit in the above 3 categories are included here.
Nip the bubble in the bud: a guide to avoid gas nucleation in microfluidics
Pereiro, I., Fomitcheva Khartchenko, A., Petrini, P., and Kaigala, G.V.
Lab on a Chip, 2019.
Shake it or flow it: Mass transport and kinetics in surface bioassays using agitation and microfluidics
Pereiro, I., Khartchenko, A. F., and Kaigala, G. V.  
Analytical Chemistry, 2020.

Genetic analysis on microfluidics devices
On-chip PCR, PCR-CE integration, Isotachophoresis (ITP) & applications ranging from bacterial infections and antibiotic susceptibility, viral load assessment, population stratification based on drug susceptibility, cancer detection and low-cost detection of toxins in drinking water.

Nonlinear controller designs for thermal management in PCR amplification
J. Jiang, G.V. Kaigala, H.J. Marquez, C.J. Backhouse
IEEE Transactions on Control System Technology 20(1), 11-30, 2012.

Rapid detection of urinary tract infection using and isotachaphoresis and molecular beacons
M. Bercovici, G.V. Kaigala (co-first author), K. Mach, C. Han, J. Liao, J.G. Santiago
Analytical Chemistry 83, 4110-4117, 2011.

High sensitivity indirect chemical detection using on-chip isotachophoresis with variable cross-section geometry
S.S. Bagha, G.V. Kaigala, M. Bercovici, J. G. Santiago
Electrophoresis 32, 563-572, 2011.

Miniaturized system for isotachophoresis assays
G.V. Kaigala, M. Bercovici, M. Behnam, D. Elliott, J.G. Santiago, C.J. Backhouse
Lab on a Chip 10, 2242-2250, 2010.

Method for analyte identification using isotachophoresis and a fluorescent carrier ampholytes assay
M. Bercovici, G.V. Kaigala, J.G. Santiago
Analytical Chemistry 82, 2134-2138, 2010.

Fluorescent carrier ampholytes assay for portable, label-free detection of chemical toxins in tap water
M. Bercovici, G.V. Kaigala, C.J. Backhouse, J.G. Santiago
Analytical Chemistry 82, 1858-1866, 2010.

A scalable and modular lab-on-a-chip genetic analysis instrument
G.V. Kaigala, M. Behnam, A.C.E. Bidulock, C. Bargen, R.W. Johnstone, D.G. Elliott, C. J. Backhouse
The Analyst 7, 1606-1617, 2010.

Integrated circuit-based instrumentation for microchip capillary electrophoresis
M. Behnam, G.V. Kaigala (co-first author), M. Khorasani, S. Martel, D.G. Elliott, C.J. Backhouse
IET Nanobiotechnology 4, 91-101, 2010.

System design and modeling of a time-varying nonlinear temperature controller for microfluidics
G.V. Kaigala, J. Jiang, C.J. Backhouse, H.J. Marquez
IEEE Transactions on Control System Technology 18, 521-530, 2010.

Inexpensive, universal serial bus-powered and fully portable lab-on-a-chip-based capillary electrophoresis instrument
G.V. Kaigala, M. Behnam, C. Bliss, M. Khorasani, S. Ho, D.G. Elliott, J. McMullin, C.J. Backhouse
IET Nanobiotechnology 3, 1-7, 2009.

Strategies for enhancing the speed and integration of microchip genetic amplification
V.N. Hoang, G.V. Kaigala, A. Atrazhev, L.M. Pilarski, C.J. Backhouse
Electrophoresis, 29, 4684-4694, 2008.

Elemental analysis using micro Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (micro-LIBS) in a microfluidic platform
Y. Godwal, G.V. Kaigala (co-first author), V. Hoang, S-L. Lui, C. Backhouse, Y. Tsui, R. Fedosejevs
Optics Express 16, 12435-12445, 2008.

An integrated CMOS high voltage supply for true Lab-on-a-Chip
M. Behnam, G.V. Kaigala, M. Khorasani, P. Marshall, C.J. Backhouse, D.G. Elliott
Lab on a Chip 8, 1524-1529, 2008.

Electrically controlled microvalves to integrate microchip polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis
G.V. Kaigala, V. Hoang, C.J. Backhouse
Lab on a Chip 8, 1071-1078, 2008.

Readily integrated, electrically-addressable microvalves
W.H. Song, J. Kwan, G.V. Kaigala, V.N. Hoang and C.J. Backhouse
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 18, 045009, 2008.

An inexpensive and portable microchip-based platform for integrated RT-PCR and capillary electrophoresis
G.V. Kaigala, V. Hoang, A. Stickel, J. Lauzon, D. Manage, L.M. Pilarski, C.J. Backhouse
The Analyst 133, 331-338, 2008.

Dynamic temperature measurement in microfluidic devices using thermochromic liquid crystals
V. Hoang, G.V. Kaigala, C.J. Backhouse
Lab on a Chip 8, 484-487, 2008.

Microfluidic platform for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism genotyping of the Thiopurine S-Methyltransferase gene to evaluate risk for adverse drug events
J. Chowdhury, G.V. Kaigala (co-first author), S. Pushpakom, J. Lauzon, A. Makin, A. Atrazhev, A. Stickel, W. G. Newman, C.J. Backhouse, L.M. Pilarski
Journal Molecular Diagnostics 9, 521-529, 2007.

Microfluidic chips for detecting the t(4;14) translocation and monitoring disease during treatment using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis of IgH-MMSET hybrid transcripts
J. Van Dijken, G.V. Kaigala (co-first author), J. Lauzon, A. Atrazhev, B.J. Taylor, T. Reiman, A.R. Belch, C.J. Backhouse, L.M. Pilarski
Journal of Molecular Diagnostics 9, 358-367, 2007 .

FISH and chips: Chromosomal analysis on microfluidic platforms
V.J. Sieben, C.S. Debes-Marun, P.M. Pilarski, G.V. Kaigala, L.M. Pilarski, C.J. Backhouse
IET Nanobiotechnology 1, 25-37, 2007.

Rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices with a wax printer
G.V. Kaigala, S. Ho, R. Penterman, C.J. Backhouse
Lab on a Chip 7, 384-387, 2007.

Automated screening using microfluidic chip-based PCR and product detection to assess risk of BK virus-associated nephropathy in renal transplant recipients
G.V. Kaigala, R. Huskins, J. Preiksaitas, X. Pang, L.M. Pilarski, C.J. Backhouse
Electrophoresis 27, 3753, 2006.